Bìol. Tvarin, 2018, volume 20, issue 4, pp. 44–54


N. M. Omelchenko1, H. V. Dronyk2

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Chernivtsi Faculty,
203а Holovna str., Chernivtsi 58018, Ukraine

2Bukovina State Agricultural Research Station NAAS,
21a Bohdana Kryzhanivskoho str., Chernivtsi 58026, Ukraine

This review analyzes the distribution of biotech crops in the world over the past 22 years. It is shown that there is a steady tendency to increase the areas on which genetically modified varieties of plants are grown. The leading producers of biotech crops are USA farmers. The area occupied by genetically modified plants in developing countries is also increasing. Among transgenic crops, soybean, cotton, maize and canola occupy a prominent place. In many countries, the use of registered genetically modified plant lines is allowed only for the production of feed mixtures and biofuel. However, the analysis of data from laboratories for the assessment of product quality suggests that the number of specimens containing transgenic components in Ukraine increases annually. It is the uncontrolled cultivation of biotech crops that can be a source of their entry into the food industry.

In the presented material, a review of the world scientists research work on the safety of animal consumption of transgenic plants. Despite the prolonged use of genetically modified plants, their influence on the organism of animals and humans is ambiguous and insufficiently studied. There is insufficient data on the safety of transgenic crops for the animal organism in the dynamics of generations. Periodically, independent authors report on various physiological and genetic disorders that are detected on experimental animals. However, they are ambiguous and rigorously criticized by supporters of the proliferation of biotechnological plants. Accordingly, there is a need for multilateral, long-term studies generations of laboratory animals to speak with certainty about the long-term effects on living organisms by genetically modified plants and their processing products.


  1. Biliak Y. The upward trend in the major threats to the use of GMOs in agricultural undertakings. Investments: practice and experience, 2015, no. 23, pp. 58–63. (in Ukrainian)
  2. Brasil F. B., Soares L. L., Faria T. S., Boaventura G. T., Sampaio F. J. B., Ramos C. F. The impact of dietary organic and transgenic soy on the reproductive system of female adult rat. The Anatomical Record (Hoboken), 2009, vol. 292, issue 4, pp. 587–594. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.20878
  3. Carman J. A., Vlieger H. R., Ver Steeg L. J., Sneller V. E., Robinson G. W., Clinch-Jones C. A., Haynes J. I., Edwards J. W. A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet. Journal of Organic Systems, 2013, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 38–54.
  4. Cromwell G. L., Lindemann M. D., Randolph J. H., Parker G. R., Coffey R. D., Laurent K. M., Armstrong C. L., Mikel W. B., Stanisiewski E. P., Hartnell G. F. Soybean meal from Roundup Ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science, 2002, vol. 80, issue 3, pp. 708–715. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.803708x
  5. Daleprane J. B., Chagas M. A., Vellarde G. C., Ramos C. F., Boaventura G. T. The impact of non- and genetically modified soybean diets in aorta wall remodeling. Journal of Food Science, 2010, vol. 75, issue 5, pp. T126-T131. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01773.x
  6. Daleprane J. B., Feijó T. S., Boaventura G. T. Organic and genetically modified soybean diets: consequences in growth and in hematological indicators of aged rats. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2009, vol. 64, issue 1, pp. 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-008-0101-0
  7. Didenko N. I. Soybean production in conditions of integration processes in Ukraine. The economy of the AIC, 2017, no. 1, pp. 31–36. (in Ukrainian)
  8. Dolaichuk O. P., Fedoruk R. S. Biological effects of different levels of soybeans conventional and transgenic varieties in the second-generation female rats ration. The Animal Biology, 2013, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 30–41. (in Ukrainian)
  9. Dolaichuk O., Fedoruk R. Structure of internals tissues of first generation of rats fed by natural and transgenic soybean. Studia biologica, 2013, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 67–76. (in Ukrainian)
  10. Dolaychuk O. P., Fedoruk R. S., Kirichuk A. P. Transamination enzyme activity in blood and tissues of two-generations of rats fed diet with added conventional and GM soybean. The Animal Biology, 2012, vol. 14, no. 1–2, pp. 306–310. (in Ukrainian)
  11. Dolaichuk O. P., Fedoruk R. S., Khrabko M. I. Fractional composition of phenols in tissues of two-
    generations of rats fed diet with added conventional and GM soybean. Scientific Herald of Chernivtsy University. Biology (Biological Systems), 2013, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 172–175. (in Ukrainian)
  12. Dolaichuk O. P., Fedoruk R. S., Kovalchuk I. I. The impact of components conventional and genetically modified soybeans on parameters of the immune and reproductive systems female rats. Physiological Journal, 2013, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 65–70. (in Ukrainian)
  13. Dolaichuk O. P., Fedoruk R. S., Kovalchuk I. I., Khrabko M. I. Physiological effects of soybeans native and transgenic varieties on the body of the third generation female rats. The Animal Biology, 2013, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 22–30. (in Ukrainian) https://doi.org/10.15407/animbiol15.03.022
  14. Ermakova I. V. Genetically modified soy leads to the decrease of weight and high mortality of rat pups of the first generation: Preliminary studies. Ecoinform, 2006, no. 1, pp. 4–10. (in Russian)
  15. Ermakova I. V. Influence of soy with the gene EPSPS CP4 on physiological state and reproductive functions of rats in two first generations. Modern problems of science and education, 2009, vol. 5, pp. 15–21. (in Russian)
  16. Ermakova I. V. New data on the effect of GMOs on the physiological state and higher nervous activity of mammals. Transgenic plants and biosafety, Moscow, 2007, pp. 38–39. (in Russian)
  17. Ermakova I. V. Prospects for the development of ecologically clean foodstuffs. Biotechnology: state and prospects of development, Moscow, 2009, vol. 2, pp. 366–367. (in Russian)
  18. Ermakova I. V., Barskov I. V. The study of morphological and physiological parameters in rats and their progeny using diets containing soybean EPSPS CP4 transgene. Modern problems of science and education, 2008, no. 6, pp. 19–20. (in Russian)
  19. EU Register of authorised GMOs. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/food/dyna/gm_register/index_en.cfm (Accessed 28 May 2018).
  20. Gaidei O. S., Zahrebelniy V. O., Novozhytska Y. N. Are there GMO in Ukraine? AgroElita, 2016. Available at: http://agroprod.biz/2016/04/14/27017/ (Accessed 28 May 2018).
  21. Gaidei O. S., Zahrebelniy V. O., Novozhytska Y. N., Usachenko N. V., Danilchenko N. L. Analysis of determining GMOs in cereals in Ukraine 2014. Grain Products and Mixed Fodders, 2015, vol. 1, no. 57, pp. 25–28. (in Ukrainian) https://doi.org/10.15673/2313-478x.57/2015.39720
  22. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects. Washington (DC), National Academies Press, 2016. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK424543/ (Accessed 28 May 2018).
  23. Gorbach T. V., Gubina-Vakulyck G. I., Denisenko S. A. Influence of genetically modified soy in experimental animals diet on the metabolism and histology of liver and kidneys. Problems of aging and longevity, 2016, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 80–86. (in Russian)
  24. Gubina-Vakulik G. I., Denisenko S. A., Horbach T. V., Kolousova N. G., Popova T. M. Morphofunctional state of adrenal gland in female rats Wistar with genetically modified soy inclusion in the diet. Tauride Medical and Biological Herald, 2012, vol. 15, no. 3, 1 (59), pp. 85–88. (in Russian)
  25. Gubina-Vakulik G. I., Gorbatch T. V., Myasoedov V. V., Kolousova N. G., Gopkalov V. G. The metabolic and histological changes of kidneys in female rats and the first generation after consumption of genetically modified soybeans. Scientific information BelNRU: Medicine. Pharmacy, 2013, no. 11 (154), pp. 150–155. (in Russian)
  26. Institute of Science in Society. http://www.isaaa.org (Accessed 26 May 2018).
  27. ISAAA Brief 52-2016. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech. GM Crops: 2016. Available at: https://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/briefs/52/download/isaaa-brief-52-2016.pdf (Accessed 27 May 2018).
  28. Jennings J. C., Kolwyck D. C., Kays S. B., Whetsell A. J., Surber J. B., Cromwell G. L., Lirette R. P., Glenn K. C. Determining whether transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein are detectable in muscle from swine fed Roundup Ready soybean meal. Journal of Animal Science, 2003, vol. 81, issue 6, pp. 1447–1455. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8161447x
  29. Konovalova M. A., Blinov V. A. Morfometric indicators and features of a spectrum of enzymes of mice’s blood receiving genetically modified soya. All-Russia Symposium Transgenic Plants and Biosafety, Moscow, 2007, p. 48. (in Russian)
  30. Kotsiumbas G. I., Levycky T. R., Samsonyk I. M. Haematological and biochemical indexes blood whey’s rats of firstgeneration, which fed soy with GMO. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, 2012, vol. 14, no. 2 (1), pp. 156–160. (in Ukrainian)
  31. Kulik Y. M., Gavriluk A. A., Rautskiene V. T., Khimich O. V. Pathological changes of reproductive ability of pigs which were longterm feeding by roundup stable genetically modified soybean. Reports of morphology, 2015, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 362–367. (in Ukrainian)
  32. Kulik Y. M., Hawryluk A. T., Rautskyiene V. T., Khymych V. A. Morphological changes of liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands of experimental animals in the case of long feeding with roundup geneticaly modified soy. Reports of morphology, 2014, no. 1, pp. 149–153. (in Ukrainian)
  33. Kulik Y. M., Rautskiene V. T., Obertiukh Y. V., Khimich O. V. The presence in the offspring of rats unidentified factor transgenic soy at its feeding over several generations. Bulletin of problems in biology and medicine, 2015, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 105–109. (in Ukrainian)
  34. Kulyk M. F., Kulyk Y. M., Korniychuk O. V., Khimich O. V., Stasyuk O. K., Obertyukh Y. V., Chornolata L. P., Lilyk T. V. Reproductive performance and physiological condition of the liver and kidneys of pigs for long-term feeding Roundup resistant GM soybeans. Bulletin of Agricultural Science, 2013, Special Issue September, pp. 88–92. (in Ukrainian)
  35. Kulyk M. F., Kulyk Y. M., Obertiukh Y. V., Khimich O. V. Effect long-term feeding of transgenic soybean on reproductive capacity of pigs. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 2015, no. 49, pp. 213–220. (in Ukrainian)
  36. Kulyk Y., Kulyk M., Khimich O., Obertiukh Y., Vlasenko V. Feeding pigs genetically modified soy for three generations is the lack of libido in boars. Agricultural Science and Food Technology, 2015, no. 1, pp. 25–36. (in Ukrainian)
  37. Kulyk Ya. M., Rautskiene V. T., Obertiukh Yu. V., Khimich O. V., Rymsha O. V. Det ection of unidentified factor transgenic soybeans in the internal organs of rats fed with its long. Reports of Vinnytsia National Medical University, 2015, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 299–302. (in Ukrainian)
  38. Kushnir G. V. The control of genetically modified plants is a guarantee of food safety. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, 2016, vol. 18, no. 3 (71), pp. 167–169. (in Ukrainian)
  39. List of GM crops registered in Russia for use in the food industry. Available at: http://oagb.ru/lib.php?txt_id=14137 (Accessed 28 May 2018).
  40. Malatesta M., Biggiogera M., Manuali E., Rocchi M. B. L., Baldelli D., Gazzanelli G. Fine structural analyses of pancreatic acinar cell nuclei from mice fed on GM soybean. European Journal of Histochemistry, 2003, vol. 47, issue 4, pp. 385–388. https://doi.org/10.4081/851
  41. Malatesta M., Boraldi F., Annovi G., Baldelli B., Battistelli S., Biggiogera M., Quaglino D. A long-term study on female mice fed on a genetically modified soybean: effects on liver ageing. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 2008, vol. 130, issue 5, pp. 967–977. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00418-008-0476-x
  42. Malatesta M., Caporaloni C., Gavaudan S., Rocchi M. B. L., Serafini S., Tiberi C., Gazzanelli G. Ultrastructural, morphometrical and immunocytochemical analysis of hepatocyte nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. Cell Structure and Function, 2002, vol. 27, issue 4, pp. 173–180. https://doi.org/10.1247/csf.27.173
  43. Malysh N. A. Genetically modified organisms in the food security system of Ukraine. Public management: theory and practice, 2013, no. 2, pp. 118–124. Available at: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Pubupr_2013_2_21 (in Ukrainian)
  44. Oliinyk D. On the issue of the use of genetically modified organisms in Ukraine. Economy of Ukraine, 2009, no. 6, pp. 85–93. (in Ukrainian)
  45. On the State System of Biosafety at the Time of Creating, Testing, Transporting, and Using Genetically Modified Organisms: The Law of Ukraine. Available at: http:/zakon1.rada.gov.ua/laws /show/1103-16 (Accessed 28 May 2018).
  46. Oraby H., Kandil M., Shaffie N., Ghaly I. Biological impact of feeding rats with a genetically modified-based diet. Turkish Journal of Biology, 2015, vol. 39, pp. 265–275. https://doi.org/10.3906/biy-1406-61
  47. Qi X., He X., Luo Y., Li S., Zou S., Cao S., Tang M., Delaney B., Xu W., Huang K. Subchronic feeding study of stacked trait genetically-modified soybean (3Ø5423×40-3-2) in Sprague–Dawley rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2012, vol. 50, issue 9, pp. 3256–3263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.06.052
  48. Sakamoto Y., Tada Y., Fukumori N., Tayama K., Ando H., Takahashi H., Kubo J., Nagasawa A., Yano N., Yuzawa K., Ogata A. A 104-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi, 2008, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 272–282. https://doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.49.272
  49. Sakamoto Y., Tada Y., Fukumori N., Tayama K., Ando H., Takahashi H., Kubo J., Nagasawa A., Yano N., Yuzawa K., Ogata A., Kamimura H. A 52-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi, 2007, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 41–50. https://doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.48.41
  50. Samsonyuk I. M. Structural and functional state of the gastrointestinal tract rat’s first generation of feeding traditional and genetically modified soybeans. Scientific and technical bulletin of Institute of animal biology and State scientific research control Institute of veterinary medical products and fodder additives, 2013, vol. 14, no. 3–4, pp. 238–243. (in Ukrainian)
  51. Samsonuyk I. M., Kotsiumbas G. I. Ultrastructural characteristic of rats liver of the third generation with the influence of genetically modified and traditional soybean. The Animal Biology, 2014, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 93–100. (in Ukrainian)
  52. Samsonyk I., Stronskyi U. Biochemical indexes blood whey’s rats of tree generation, which fed soy with GMO. Scientific Messenger of LNUVMBT, 2013, vol. 15, no. 3 (2), pp. 279–282. (in Ukrainian)
  53. Sarbakanova Sh. T., Latypova Z. A., Anayatova B. Zh., Kenzhebaeva M. Zh. The influence of GMOs on the reproductive functions of animals. Modern achievements of veterinary medicine and biology in agricultural production. II All-Russia Scientific and Practical Conference, Ufa, 2014, pp. 395–397. (in Russian)
  54. Sarbakanova Sh. T., Latypova Z. A., Daugalieva S. T., Aubekerova L. S. Effect of feed containing genetically modified soya on hematological parameters of laboratory rats. The role of veterinary science and practice in the effective development of livestock breeding: materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference, 2012, pp. 465–468. (in Russian)
  55. Snell C., Bernheim A., Bergé J.-B., Kuntz M., Pascal G., Paris A., Ricroch E. A. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2012, vol. 50, issue 3–4, pp. 1134–1148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.048
  56. Soares L. L., Lucas A. M. M., Boaventura G. T. Can organic and transgenic soy be used as a substitute for animal protein by rats? Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2005, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 583–586. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2005000400012
  57. Sorokoletova N. E., Lomteva N. A., Kondratenko E. I., Netipanova N. V. Modern aspects uses of gene-modified components in food and methods their detection. Technologies for the food and processing industry of AIC, 2014, no. 4, pp. 75–81. (in Russian)
  58. Teshima R., Akiyama H., Okunuki H., Sakushima J., Goda Y., Onodera H., Sawada J., Toyoda M. Effect of GM and non-GM soybeans on the immune system of BN rats and B10A mice. Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi), 2000, vol. 41, issue 3, pp. 188–193. https://doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.41.188
  59. The most extensive researchof GMO influence on human beings has been completed. Available at: http://aggeek.net/ru/news/id/zaversheno-samoe-masshtabnoe-issledovanie-vlijanija-gmo-na-zdorove-cheloveka-251 (Accessed 28 May 2018).
  60. Tutelyan V. A., Gapparov M. M. G., Avrenjeva L. I., Guseva L. V., Zhminchenko V. M., Kravchenko L. V., Pashorina V. A., Saprikin V. P., Seliaskin K. E., Tyshko N. V. Medical and Biological Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean Event MON 89788. Report 1. Toxicologo-Hygienic Examinations. Problems of Nutrition, 2010, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 4–12. (in Russian)
  61. Tyshko N. V., Britsina M. V., Gmoshinskii I. V., Zaharova N. S., Zorin S. N., Mazo V. K. Ozerethskovskaya M. N., Seliaskin K. E. Medical and Biological Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean Event MON 89788. Report 2. Genotoxicologic, Immunologic and Allergologic Examinations. Problems of nutrition, 2010, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 13–17. (in Russian)
  62. U-28 Agricultural Biotechnology Annual, 2016. Available at: https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Agricultural%20Biotechnology%20Annual_Paris_EU-28_12-6-2016.pdf (Accessed 28 May 2018).
  63. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/current/Acre/Acre-06-30-2017.txt (Accessed 27 May 2018).
  64. Vecchio L., Cisterna B., Malatesta M., Martin T. E., Biggiogera M. Ultrastructural analysis of testes from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. European Journal of Histochemistry, 2003, vol. 48, issue 4, pp. 449–454. https://doi.org/10.4081/920
  65. Williams A. L., DeSesso J. M. Genetically-modified soybeans: A critical evaluation of studies addressing potential changes associated with ingestion. Abstract 1154, Poster Board 424, Safety Concerns of Food and Natural Products. Salt Lake City, Utah March 7–11, 2010. Available at: http://www.exponent.com/files/Uploads/Documents/news%20and%20features/SOT%20Presentation%20Handout_draft.pdf (Accessed 27 May 2018).
  66. Yuan J., Tang Z., Zhao J., Shi Z., Wang J. Toxicologic evaluation of chronic feeding of glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean GTS40-3-2 meal to rats. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 2017, vol. 29, issue 11, pp. 856–862. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2017.v29.i11.1495
  67. Zhu Y., Li D., Wang F., Yin J., Jin H. Nutritional assessment and fate of DNA of soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans using rats. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 2004, vol. 58, issue 4, pp. 295–310. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039420412331273277

Download full text in PDF