Bìol. Tvarin. 2020; 22 (2): 3–8.
Received 06.05.2020 ▪ Accepted 01.06.2020 ▪ Published online 01.07.2020

Lipid nutrition of sheep

P. V. Stapaj1, N. P. Stakhiv1, V. V. Havryliak², O. O. Smolianinova¹, O. S. Tyutyunnyk³

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1Institute of Animal Biology NAAN,
38 V. Stus str., Lviv, 79034, Ukraine

2Lviv Polytechnic National University,
3/4 St. Yura sq., Lviv, 79013, Ukraine

3Kamianets-Podilskyi Ivan Ohiienko National University,
20 Ohiienko str., Kamianets-Podilskyi, 32301, Ukraine

The analysis of literature and personal research data on the role of lipids and their individual fatty acids in the nutrition of sheep has been presented. Experimental data indicate a positive effect of lipids on the body of sheep. However, the question of lipid nutrition is poorly studied, which explains the lack of scientifically based standards for the content of raw fat in sheep diets in general and of individual saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in particular, which leads to an overrun of the most expensive and deficient component of the diet — protein, as well as negatively affects the productivity of animals and the quality of wool, meat and dairy products. A significant amount of data is devoted to the characterization of lipids and their individual fatty acids in various feeds. In particular, it has been shown that plant seeds (wheat, barley, oats, peas) mostly contain structural lipids (phospholipids, glycolipids) in which linoleic (C18:2) acid, which is the parent of acid family ω-6, predominates quantitatively (from 45 to 61%). The amount of linoleic (C18:2) acid does not exceed 7%, and it is a representative of acid family ω-3. This acid and ω-9 are precursors of various biologically active substances, in particular prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelets and others. It is emphasized that with the increase in the ω-3 fatty acids in the diets of animals, the spectrum of fatty acids of lipids in tissues and organs changes in the direction of increasing their unsaturation, and therefore, the ratio of ω-6/ω-3 acids in the diets should be taken into account for the normal provision of the body with polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is known that the body of sheep is characterized by high requirements for mineral nutrition, which is associated with their products, in particular wool, and among the whole spectrum of mineral elements a special role belongs to Sulfur, whose content in wool is 3–5%. Therefore, the synthesis of keratin is inextricably linked to the intensive use of sulfur-containing compounds, mainly cystine. Our studies have shown that the increase in productivity under the influence of feeding sheep with sulfo-containing compounds is closely related to lipid metabolism, in particular phospholipids, since in sulfate sulfur experiments in vitro particularly the sulfolipid fraction is intensively incorporated into polar skin-lipids. Sulfur-containing compounds stimulate the synthesis of lipids and fatty acids in the body and this is due to the fact that Sulfur is a part of proteins, lipids, vitamins and other biologically active substances.

Key words: sheep, lipids, fatty acids, sulfur, feed, nutrition

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