Influence of Burshtyn thermal power plant emissions on sheep at different age

O. Ya. Zakhariv1, I. V. Vudmaska2, A. P. Petruk3

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1Separated Subdivision of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
“Berezhany Agrotechnical Institute”,
20 Akademichna str., Berezhany, Ternopil district, Ternopil region, 47501, Ukraine

2Institute of Animal Biology NAAS,
38 V. Stus str., Lviv, 79034, Ukraine

3Stepan Gzhytsky National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv,
50 Pekarska str., Lviv, 79010, Ukraine

Prolonged stay of animals in the area of man-made load leads to quantitative changes in the blood, reducing the level of activity of cellular and humoral defense factors. The hematological parameters and immunological status of sheep in the ecologically contaminated area change with age according to general biological patterns, objectively reflecting the intensity of metabolic processes in postnatal ontogenesis. Sheeps of fine-wool Carpathian breed were used as an object. The studies were performed on lambs obtained from ewes kept in contaminated and environmentally friendly areas, aged 1, 2, 4, 8 months and on adult animals aged 1.5 years. The results of research conducted in the winter and spring periods of 2010–2012 are summarized. The content of hemoglobin in the blood of sheep in the zone of man-made pollution was lower than in the blood of sheep in the ecologically clean zone, respectively: at 1 month of age — by 9.5%; at 2 months of age — by 29.0%; at the age of 4 months — by 24.5%; at the age of 8 months — by 21.9%; at the age of 1.5 years — by 21.25% (P≤0.05–0.001). We found no significant differences in the total leukocyte content of sheep, which were kept both in the area of contamination and outside the area of contamination. In lambs from the contaminated area, the bactericidal activity of blood serum at 4 months of age was 32% less (P≤0.01) than the bactericidal activity of blood in peers from the safe area, and lysozyme activity of serum, respectively — 29% less (P ≤0.01). With regard to phagocytic activity, which characterizes the level of cellular immunity, this indicator was 31.5% lower in lambs from the contaminated area than in lambs from the environmentally friendly area (P≤0.01). A higher concentration of Lead, Copper, Cadmium and Zinc in the blood of sheep in the man-made contaminated area was detected. These differences were most pronounced in adult animals. In the blood of adult sheep in the zone of anthropogenic pressure, the level of Lead, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc was 2.86; 103.7; 3.30; 349.8 μg%, vs. 0.41; 13.2; 1.05; 121.4 μg%, in sheep from the welfare zone (P≤0,001). Specific immunoglobulin of subclasses IgG1 and IgG2 in animals from the contaminated area were 61 and 52% of their level outside the area of man-made load. Viability of lambs in this area was almost twice lower than in the environmentally friendly area. The obtained results indicate the presence of general patterns in the occurrence of a complex of disorders in animals in response to adverse conditions. This becomes apparent given the lag in growth and development, as well as the premature death of lambs in the contaminated area.

Key words: technogenic loading, chemical elements, sheep, blood, immunity

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